Lathe machine are widely use machine tool its primary function is to remove metals from the work piece and gives it a desire shape and size .The work piece is hold rigidly in chuck or between the centres of the lathe. It rotates the job against a single point cutting tool which removes metal from the job. An Engine Lathe is the most basic form of lathe machine as the name suggest “Engine” is that early days steam engines were use to provide power to operate the machines. Besides metal removing Lathe machine can also be use for operations like drilling,taper turnging , Screw thread cutting , grinding , boaring etc.
Types of Lathe Machines.
Following are the seven different types of lathe machine:
Speed Lathe Machine
Engine Lathe Machine
Bench Lathe Machine
Toolroom Lathe Machine
Capstan and Turret Lathe Machine
Special purpose lathe machines
Automatic Lathe Machine
1. Speed Lathe Machine
This types of lathe machines are simple in construction. It has a bed, headstock, tailstock and tool post mounted on the adjustable slide. There is no feed box lead screw or carriage.
The tool is mounted on the adjustable slide and is fed into the work purely by hand control. This characteristic of the lathe machines has the speed ranges from 1200 to 3600 rpm. The headstock construction is very simple and has only 2 or 3 spindle speed available.
Speed lathe machine has less depth of cut. Light force and high speed made this to use this part woodworking, spinning, centring and polishing. The name speed lathe has been given because of the very high speed of the headstock spindle.
2. Engine Lathe Machine
Engine lathe is the most widely using in the lathe machine. These machines are driven by the gear mechanism or pulley mechanism. The name engine lathe is given because of the earlier lathe were driven by steam engines.
Engine lathe machine has all the parts similar to that of speed lathe. Such as bed, headstock and tailstock etc. The headstock of an engine lathe is rigid in construction and has got an additional mechanism to get multiple spindle speeds.
Unlike the speed lathe, the engine lathe can feed the cutting tool both in the cross and longitudinal direction with reference to the lathe axis with the help of a carriage feed and leadscrew. This types of lathe machines are still using in workshops and many industries. It has three types Belt-driven, Motor-driven, Gearhead type.
2.1 Belt Drive Lathe Machine
A lathe that receives its power from an overhead line shaft is a belt-driven lathe and is equipped with a speed-cone and one or more back gears to get a wide range of spindle speeds.
2.2 Motor Driven Lathe Machine
A lathe that receives its power from an individual motor integral with the machine is called a motor-driven lathe.
2.3 Geared-head Lathe Machine
A geared-head lathe gets its power from a constant speed motor, and all-speed changes are obtained by shifting various gears located in the headstock. It has no cone pulley.
3. Bench lathe
This types of lathe machines are small in size and use for a very small precision work. Bench lathe machines are mounted on the bench. It has all the similar parts of engine lathe and speed lathe. Bench lathe machine performs almost all the operations of engine lathe and speed lathe its only difference being in the size.
4. Toolroom Lathe Machine
Toolroom lathe machine is the same as that of engine lathe but provides a wide range of speed. The spindle speed range is from very low to a quite high speed up to 2500rpm.
This is equipped beside the other thing, with a chuck, taper turning attachment, draw in collect attachment, steady and follower rest, pump for coolant, etc. Tool-room Lathe is costlier as compared to the engine lathe. It is mainly using in grindings, working on the tool, dies gauges and in machining work where is accuracy is needed.
5. Capstan Lathe and Turret Lathe
This types of lathe machines are using in production work. These lathe machines are the development of the engine lathe. These machines provided by hexagonal turret head instead of the tailstock. It also consists of three tool post.
In these types of lathe machines, multiple tools may be fitted and fed into the work in the proper sequence. The main advantage is that different operations and parts can produce in very less amount of time. And also without changing the tool the quantity and quality are high.
Capstan and turret lathe requires more floor space than other lathe machines. Capstan and turret lathe is using for only large jobs
6. Special purpose lathe machines
As the name implies these types of lathe machines used for the special purpose and for production work. In this lathe, special operations are performed such as drilling, grinding, reaming, boring etc.
The special purpose lathe machines are:
1. Wheel lathe machine
2. Gap bed lathe machine
3. T-lathe machine
4. Duplicating lathe machine
5. Missile lathe machine
1. Wheel Lathe Machine
The wheel lathe is made for finishing the journals and turning the thread on the railroad, automobile cars and locomotive wheels.
2. Gap Bed Lathe
The gap bed lathe, in which a section of the bed adjacent to the headstock is removable, is used to swing extra large diameter pieces.
The “T -lathe” is using for machining rotors for jet engines. The axis of the lathe bed is at right angles to the axis of the headstock spindle in the form of a T.
4. Duplicating Lathe
The duplicating lathe machine is one of the duplicating the shape of a flat or round template on to the workpiece. Mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic devices are all used to coordinate the movement of the tool to reproduce accurately the shape of the template .
5. Missile Lathe Machine
The missile lathe machine which has a very large swing for accommodating long missile component of very large diameter is the most modern and latest in lathe design.
7. Automatic Lathe
In these types of lathe machines, all the work is done automatically. These are the high-speed heavy-duty, production lathes. In these types of lathe
machines once the tool is set it performs all the operations automatically to finish the job.
Here the change of tools and feed are automatically. The single operator can control 5 to 6 automatic lathe at a time.
Lathe machine performs the different operation such as turning, facing, taper turning, knurling, grooving, parting off, electric turning, thread cutting, reaming etc. Let it take one by one as follows.